Multiple Sclerosis – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Multiple Sclerosis - Dr. Rohit Gupta

Multiple sclerosis is a chronic neurological condition that affects the central nervous system. It has an impact on the brain and spinal cord and can result in lifelong nerve damage.

What Is Multiple Sclerosis?

The immune system destroys the myelin sheath, which wraps and protects the nerve fibres, in multiple sclerosis. The myelin coating aids neurons in transmitting electrical information swiftly and efficiently. When the myelin sheath is injured, a scar or sclerosis forms. Nerve fibres are injured when lesions and injuries advance. It promotes inflammation and swelling, impairing the body’s natural functioning.

Types of Multiple Sclerosis

There are four forms of MS. It also establishes the phases. They are as follows:

  • Clinically isolated syndrome: The first and only episode of multiple sclerosis, with symptoms lasting around 24 hours.
  • Relapsing  remitting multiple sclerosis: This form affects around 85 percent of persons. After relapse, the new symptoms may fade without increasing the level of disability, or they may diminish partially but still result in an increase in disability.
  • Primary progressive multiple sclerosis: Primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) is distinguished by declining neurologic function (disability accumulation) from the outset of symptoms, with no early remissions or relapses.
  • Secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: Secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) begins with relapsing-remitting symptoms and progresses to an advanced secondary course with increasing impairment of neurologic function.

Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis

Symptoms vary from individual to individual.

  • Weakness or numbness in one or more limbs, usually on one side of the body at a time, or in the trunk and legs.
  • Tremor, incoordination, or an unsteady walk.
  • Electric shock sensations that occur with certain neck motions.

Vision problems are also common, such as:

  • Blurry vision
  • Long-term double vision
  • Partial or total vision loss, usually in one eye at a time, that is frequently accompanied by pain during eye movement

Symptoms of Multiple sclerosis may also include:

  • Slurred speech
  • Fatigue
  • Dizziness
  • Bladder, bowel and sexual function problems
  • Tingling or discomfort in different areas of the body

When Is It Time to See a Doctor About Multiple Sclerosis?

If you experience a couple of the aforementioned signs and symptoms, you should be tested for MS. This condition has no permanent remedy. Early diagnosis and therapy can help patients recover quickly from immune assaults, change the course of the disease, and control symptoms.

Request a consultation at Accord Superspeciality Hospital in Faridabad. You may also make an appointment by calling +91-9718044428.

Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis

MS has no particular diagnostic tests. Meanwhile, a diagnosis is frequently dependent on ruling out alternative possibilities. Your doctor will most likely begin with a comprehensive examination and medical history. Your doctor may then advise you to:

Blood tests: To rule out other disorders that cause symptoms similar to MS.

Spinal tap (lumbar puncture): A tiny sample of cerebrospinal fluid is extracted to look for antibodies associated to MS to rule out other illnesses.

MRI: A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan may detect regions of Multiple Sclerosis (lesions) on your spinal cord and brain.

Evoked potential tests: These tests record electrical signals produced by your nervous system in response to stimuli.

Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

It is incurable. Treatments are used to alleviate symptoms and delay the course of the disease. Furthermore, minor symptoms might not require therapy.

Corticosteroids or plasma exchange may be recommended by the doctor to treat attacks. Corticosteroids are medications that can be taken orally or intravenously. Plasma exchange is often referred to as plasmapheresis. Plasma is extracted from blood cells using this procedure. These blood cells are subsequently combined with albumin and returned to the body.

The sort of treatment to choose is determined by the stage, and your doctor may recommend the best solution based on your stage or type of MS.


Multiple sclerosis sufferers’ life expectancy has increased over time. It has occurred as a result of innovative therapeutic techniques, improved healthcare facilities, and lifestyle changes. Multiple sclerosis does not have a permanent cure, but the symptoms and problems arising may be managed by early diagnosis and proper treatment.